The student population in this country is becoming increasingly diverse. Students of color are already the majority in the fifty largest school districts; one in four of all students is poor; and increasing numbers are language minorities. In contrast, the current teaching force is only 12 to 14 percent nonwhite, and there is an increasing number of white prospective teachers who have experience with diverse populations. These statistics highlight the importance of adequately preparing preservice teachers for the instruction of diverse students. The purpose of this study was to investigate how preservice teachers perceived and interpreted students' multiple literacies in school and non-school settings. Insight into these issues will inform the broader question of how teacher educators can help preservice teachers learn to incorporate non-school literacies into classroom literacy instruction, a crucial element of effective literacy instruction. This paper discusses the perceptions and interpretations of one of four research participants, gathered through pre- and post-term interviews and questionnaires, as well as field observation and interviews. The study found that field placements in multicultural school settings can provide valuable experiences for preservice teachers. However, they may not enable them to directly experience diverse students' multiple, non-school literacies. An additional field placement in a non-school setting may be more conducive to doing this, with more probability of influencing preservice teachers' conceptions of literacy instruction. It may instruct preservice teachers in how to incorporate non-school literacies into classroom literacy instruction, a crucial element in the education of diverse students.
Rene P. Rosenbaum & Marcelo E. Siles
This report is a compilation of charts, tables and text measuring the differences in statistics such as annual payroll, employment, firm, and receipts for businesses in Michigan and the United States owned by minorities and women. The term "minorities" in this case refers to Blacks, persons of Hispanic or Latin American ancestry, persons of American Indian ancestry, and persons of Asian or other minority origin or descent. The charts provide the reader with a quick method for comparing basic economic data for these groups as well as for women in Michigan and in the United States.
Globally, agricultural laborers struggle to meet their families’ basic needs, while performing work that remains arduous and low paying, and entails substantial occupational health risks. In the United States, research studies continue to document the exploitation experienced by this hard working but socially invisible occupational group. The low-income California residents who are the focus of this research are California’s working poor—farmworker families. This occupational group is unique because many safety regulations governing other occupational groups are not applied to agricultural labor. In the midst of California’s agricultural prosperity, this group of workers remains largely hidden in our society. From the perspective of a political economy of health, this research examines healthcare access, specifically defined, under two labor patterns: 1) when farmworkers migrate, and 2) when they are working in homebased areas. More specifically, this research inquiry aims to understand what processes most substantially affect both potential access and realized access to primary healthcare services. Potential access refers to the availability of medical services relative to the need. Realized access refers to the use of medical services to satisfy those needs.
Robert Aponte & Marcelo Siles
This report provides a Latino-focused assessment of the changing demographic and economic landscape of the Midwest between 1980 and 1990. Drawing on data from the 1990 Census, the authors found that Latinos (Hispanics) captured the bulk of population growth over the decade, while sustaining a major loss in real income and experiencing significant increases in poverty. Specifically, the authors found that over 56 percent of total population increase was accounted for by Latinos, especially Mexicans. On indicators of well-being, an increasing gap separates Whites from Latinos and Blacks. Whites, Blacks and Latinos all sustained significant real income declines over the period, although Whites maintained and even expanded the gap between themselves and the other groups. Nearly a third of Blacks were in poverty, and over one in five Latinos were poor, while less than 1 in 10 Whites were impoverished. Puerto Ricans’ rates of poverty are at least as high as those of Blacks. Hispanic educational attainment is the least favorable indicator of all. Latinos trail the others, including Blacks, by wide margins. Latino labor force participation exceeds that of Whites and Blacks. The per capita income of Blacks is slightly better than that of Hispanics. The research implications of this study are to determine what macroeconomic factors accounted for a downturn in income and why Latinos and Blacks have been hit so hard in the process.
This report presents a directory of migrant service agencies in Michigan. The directory was compiled by the author as part of the Institute's research on the contributions, characteristics, needs and services of and for Michigan's migrant and seasonal agricultural workers. The Institute acknowledges that the directory is by no means a complete list of organizations helpful to migrant farm workers in the State, but only a list of information available at the time of the abovementioned study. Furthermore, the Institute disclaims responsibility for the performance of the entities listed herein. This directory is to be used for reference purposes only, and is not to be considered an endorsement of the agencies listed.
Roberto E. Torres
Torres stresses in the foreword of his report the lack of organized information on the health status of Latinos in the U.S. Midwest region. The importance of this information has increased as the Hispanic population of this region has increased. In this report, the author has organized information from article journals, unpublished documents, and state health departments. He covers a wide range of health issues including chronic diseases, drug abuse and maternal and child health. His findings are presented in graphic form and the report also includes a section entitled "Highlights" that covers in brief a wide range of health issues for Latino groups in various areas of the Midwest.
This report provides a portrait of the changing profile of the Latino population in the Midwest. In light of the mission of the Julian Samora Research Institute, this report provides detailed information about a population which heretofore has been generally ignored. This document provides a historical context upon which we can continue to build our knowledge base regarding the socioeconomic conditions of Latinos in the region, and serves as a reference resource that provides a mechanism for the exchange of information and the development of public policy. In addition, this report could be used in classroom discussions of regional social issues and their varying impacts upon Latinos as well as Anglos and Blacks. The data contained herein provides a comprehensive picture of the Latino experience in a comparative perspective.
Refugio Rochin, Anne Santiago & Karla Dickey
This study documents the current situation facing Michigan’s migrant and seasonal farm workers, many of whom are Hispanics who come to Michigan each year for seasonal employment. The study provides an up-to-date analysis of the demand for, supply of migrant and seasonal farm workers in Michigan, and examines the needs of farm workers. Information for this study comes from secondary sources such as other reports and census data and from a statewide survey of service providers. The study found that Michigan agriculture has been employing migrant and seasonal workers in since the turn of the 20th century. There has been a functional and necessary relationship between migrant workers and producers of fruits and vegetables. Farm mechanization has reduced but not eliminated the demand and need for migrant and seasonal workers in Michigan, and migrants continue to follow a pattern of travelling long distances for employment, many traveling up to 4,000 miles roundtrip from Texas to work on Michigan farms. The study highlights that new policies and measures at the federal and state levels will shape the future of farm-labor relations, farm worker employment, and farm worker problems. The time was right for an up-to-date report on the demand for and supply of farm labor; and labor-intensive fruit and vegetable production will continue to be a growing and prosperous sector of Michigan agriculture.