John P. Koval
The city of Chicago has been a classic example of Urban immigration and absorption -- a U.S. city populated, built, and run by immigrants. However, after years of White middle- and upper-middle-class dominance of suburban Chicago, Latinos are now at the forefront of the racial and ethnic integration of Chicago's suburbs. The majority of Latinos in metropolitan Chicago—as well as the five other largest immigrant groups—live in the suburbs. The city of Chicago is no longer the immigrant capital of the Midwest; today, it is suburban Chicago.
Sissi Foster & Susan Krouse
This paper summarizes a study that examined the availability and quality of local data on the health of American Indians and Latinos in the City of Lansing, Mich., and compared these populations to Whites and Blacks. Comprehensive databases on health (specifically morbidity and morality), environment, demographics, and spatial distribution were gathered and analyzed for these populations. Our study found that current local data is inadequate for proper population assessment, specifically in the areas of data quality, data scale, and data storage. Using the existing data with its limitations, we completed descriptions for these two populations and made suggestions for continued research.
The demographic characteristics of Indiana’s Latino (Hispanic) population have not been documented in a number of years. In addition, the two most recent and thorough analyses of Hispanics in the state were based on the 1990 Census (Aponte 1999, Gannon, et. al., 1996). Since then, this population has undergone dramatic growth and shifts in residential patterning, owing largely to rapid in-migration. This is evident not only from the partial release of Census 2000 data, but also from numerous reports from around the state that bear witness to these changes. In addition, there are solid indications that the lion’s share of the growth occurred in the second half of the 1990’s.
Ann V. Millard, Mary Ann J. Ladia, & MarÌaelena Jefferds
This report presents data from the medical recordds of patients who were migrant farmworkers or their family members and who were last seen at migrant clinics in Michigna in the late 1980's. This project analyszed data from 154 patients who were at least five years of age.
David A. Lopez
In less than a decade, Latinos doubled their population in numerous midwest states. Latino settlement in Nebraska mirrors what has been occurring throughout the Midwest. Between 1980 and 1990, the Latino population in the Midwest increased by 35.2%. Projections indicate that the Latino population will increase in Nebraska by 65% in the years 1990-2000, 94.7% from 1990-2005, and 140.6% from 1990-2015. This study compares various social and economic indicators between Latinos and non-Latino Whites in the city of Omaha. Data is also provided on Latinos for selected census tracts in the ethnic community of South Omaha.
Like most states in the nation's heartland, Indiana has hosted relatively few residents of Hispanic or Latino origin in the last few decades (Aponte and Siles, 1994). However, there are indications that this situation is changing rapidly, as we relate below. Nevertheless, the number of Latino residents in the state fell just short of 100,000 persons at the time of the last census. Thus, only three states (Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio) of the 12 in the Midwest region held more Latinos in 1990. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the group in Indiana, particularly as they compare with other groups in the state and with other Latinos in the region and nation. It is based primarily on census publications, but includes findings from other recent work along with information gleaned from numerous interviews and observations currently underway for these purposes.
Marcelo E. Siles & Refugio I. Rochín
This report of the Julian Samora Research Institute examines the characteristics of Latinos living in North Lansing and compares their socio-economic condition with Hispanics living in the Lansing MSA. For purposes of comparison, we define the North Lansing area as bounded by the following: on the North by Grand River; on the East by Wood Road; on the South by Saginaw Highway; and on the West by ML King Boulevard.
Refugio I. Rochin & Marcelo E. Siles
Latinos have occupied important and expanding positions in Nebraska's economy. To date, however, relatively little is written about this unique group. Nebraska history, for example, contains little information about the Spanish and Mexican pioneers who explored its land long before the region was incorporated into the United States. Social scientists have hardly accounted for the employment and economic contributions of Latinos in agriculture, construction, services, and agro-industrial plants of Nebraska. Nonetheless, before long, Latinos will become an increasingly significant part of the political and social fabric of Nebraska. As part of the "browning of the Midwest," they will hold more positions in the private and public sectors and become more active voters on local decisions. Thus, it is important to address Latino issues and concerns and to relate these to the socio-history of Nebraska. This Statistical Brief or CIFRAS, is a modest beginning towards a better understanding of Latinos in Nebraska. It provides an overview of Latino history and a set of tables based upon U.S. Census reports of Hispanics in Nebraska. The Tables and Figures compare and contrast Latinos with other population groups in Nebraska as well as Latinos in other parts of the Midwest. Comments and suggestions which add to this knowledge will be welcomed by the authors, c/o the Julian Samora Research Institute at Michigan State University.
Mazin Heiderson & Edgar R. Leon
This statistical brief provides a portrait of Michigan Migrant Education from the late 1980's to the mid-1990's. It reviews the legislative highlights of the Migrant Education Law and the activities that employ migratory workers in Michigan: agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. Next, it details the goals of Migrant Education and the eligibility requirements for migratory children. Then, the report describes the state's profile within the U.S. scene for the number of children served and funding for the program. Basic counts and other statistical indicators are illustrated by tables and graphs. These include a breakdown by sex, ethnicity/race, qualifying activity, migrant status, home base state, and monthly and seasonal movement. After that, the report describes the location and type of local and regional migrant education projects in Michigan. For each one year service cycle (regular school year plus the following summer), tables and graphs show the number of children served by Michigan Migrant Education by age/grade, season, migrant status (formerly migratory and currently migratory). A map showing the location and capacity for migrant labor camps licensed by the Michigan Department of Public Health (now called Community Health). Finally, a list of sources and related reading completes the report.
Elaine Allensworth & Refugio I. Rochin
During the last several decades many Chicanos and Latino immigrants have made rural communities their permanent homes. As their numbers have increased, the numbers of non-Hispanic white people have decreased in absolute and relative amounts in these areas. Rural Latinos are currently concentrated in about 100 communities where there are agricultural jobs.l Correlation analyses show that greater concentration of Latinos is associated with more of the population in poverty, more of the labor force in agriculture fewer adults with a high school degree or some college education, lower per capita community revenues, and lower per capita community expenditures.2 These trends can be partially, but not entirely, explained by increasing immigration from Mexico, and depressed wages and conditions in the farm labor market. While immigration generally brings more income to local communities, it also can increase underemployment, poverty, and public assistance use.3 As conditions in the farm labor market deteriorate, so do the service provision efforts of farmdependent communities. An increasingly poor community cannot support a viable commercial sector, and without much local commerce, city governments have stagnant tax bases.4 To counter such problems, rural development policy has focused on helping people acquire skills and move out of rural areas, and promoting investment in communities to stimulate growth.5 However, these solutions don't improve the well-being of the community-better educated people move out, leaving space for new, poorer migrants, while economic growth does not bring relief from poverty for all groups of residents.6 This Statistical Brief provides a basis for further study of these phenomena by examining trends in population and community well-being among rural communities in California. It then profiles eight specific communities located in a highly agricultural area-between Fresno and Bakersfield in the San Joaquin valley. These eight communities have been selected by means of percentile rankings as being representative of general trends, yet differing somewhat from neighboring communities. These analyses allow us to focus on the following questions: (1) What are the specific relationships between greater agricultural employment, immigration, Latino population concentration, and community life variables? (2) Which demographic variables best predict economic well-being among rural communities? (3) What patterns are discernible in terms of immigration and economic health for rural communities? Are communities experiencing similar patterns? How are these patterns emerging in specific communities?
Ruben G. Rumbaut
Contemporary immigration to the United States and the formation of new ethnic groups are the complex and unintended social consequences of the expansion of the nation to its post-World War II position of global hegemony. Immigrant communities in the United States today are related to a history of American military, political, economic, and cultural involvement and intervention in the sending countries, especially in Asia and the Caribbean Basin, and to the linkages that are formed in the process that open a variety of legal and illegal migration pathways. The 19.8 million foreign-born persons counted in the 1990 U.S. census formed the largest immigrant population in the world, though in relative terms, only 7.9% of the U.S. population was foreign-born, a lower proportion than earlier in this century. Today's immigrants are extraordinarily diverse, a reflection of polar-opposite types of migrations embedded in very different historical and structural contexts. Also, unlike the expanding economy that absorbed earlier flows from Europe, since the 1970's new immigrants have entered an "hourglass" economy with reduced opportunities for social mobility, particularly among the less educated, and new waves of refugees have entered a welfare state with expanded opportunities for public assistance. (Rubén G. Rumbaut, 1994) This CIFRAS seeks to make sense of the new diversity, with a focus on immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean. Some key facts and figures about contemporary immigrants are presented, looking at their patterns of settlement and comparing their distinctive social and economic characteristics to major U.S. racial-ethnic groups. Their different modes of incorporation in - and consequences for - American society are the subject matter of more extensive articles by the author, as noted in the references. The information of this CIFRAS is conveyed in four data tables, drawn from the 1990 U.S. Census of Population. Each table is designed to address separate but interrelated issues of today's Latino population. In order, the tables cover: Patterns of Settlement of the U.S. Hispanic Population; A Socioeconomic Portrait of Major U.S. Ethnic Groups; Latin American and Caribbean Immigrants in the U.S. Today; A Socioeconomic Portrait of Principal Immigrant Groups. In addition, several Figures are presented to highlight certain parts of the tables.
Robert Aponte & Marcelo E. Siles
A widely publicized Institute report, "Latinos in the Heartland: The Browning of the Midwest" (Aponte and Siles 1994), provided a Latino-focused preliminary assessment of the changing demographic and economic landscape of the Midwest between 1980 and 1990. This follow-up report provides a synopsis of those findings along with several additional findings based on census data not available at the time of the original report's release. These new findings both elaborate on some of the key issues in the earlier report, and provide a more comparative context. In addition, a newly developing pattern of Latino settlement in the rural Midwest is explored.
Marcelo E. Siles
Three themes have captured popular media attention in recent years. One is the increase in the minority and immigrant population -i.e., the "browning of America". The second encompasses real changes in the job market ranging from downsizing companies eliminating "good jobs", to the continued mechanization and/or export of low skill jobs, to the inability of business to find workers sufficiently educated to fill available positions. Both of these themes are linked with yet a third issue that has seared the national consciousness -- affirmative action. This paper will touch on these three themes in its focus on the demographic changes and educational status of Hispanics in Michigan. In a time of fierce debate about the need for affirmative action in both the educational system and the workplace, it is imperative to look at the record to see it the much talked about "level playing field" has been reached. The first questions we will explore regard the success Hispanics and other minorities have had in improving their educational attainment. Are these kids getting through the K-12 system? Are they moving successfully through postsecondary education? With affirmative action in place, what does the educational attainment of Hispanics look like? And what do the findings suggest for a day when it might not be?
This Statistical Brief presents data that examines in slightly greater detail Hispanic business ownership in Michigan. Census data on the stock of HOFs are combined with population data to compare the patterns of Hispanic business ownership in the state to those of the nation. State and national patterns in business ownership are examined for all HOFs, for women and male-owned HOFs, and for HOFs categorized by Hispanic subgroup. The state and national patterns in the concentration of HOFs in several industries are also examined.
Refugio I. Rochin & Marcelo E. Siles
The first research report of the Julian Samora Research Institute, published in 1989, began by noting that: Michigan's food and fiber system constitutes the second most important industry in the state. More than one in five state jobs stems from agriculture. A critical part of Michigan's farm economy is the availability, timeliness and professional skills of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. According to a USDA report, Michigan is the fifth most agriculturally dependent state on farmworkers in the United States. Since that report, the symbiotic relationship between agriculture and farm labor has been much the same and indications are that migrant and seasonal farmworkers continue to face many of the same problems in agriculture that they experienced a decade ago: uncertain demand for jobs, problems in finding housing and accommodations for families with children, uncertain incomes and related poverty.
Robert Aponte & Marcelo E. Siles
The Hispanic or Latino population in Michigan is quickly becoming a more prominent member of the community. This is partly due to the group’s increased population size, but it is also due to their impressive representation in the labor force, a representation among school-aged youth as well as their rapidly increasing presence in the business world. However, as subsequently shown, poverty and underrepresentation in high income jobs continue to be areas of needed attention for the advancement of Michigan’s Latinos.