Lisa J. Gold
Nearly a decade ago, the EPA implemented comprehensive regulations intended to protect farmworkers from the harmful effects of pesticides in the workplace. These “Worker Protection Standards” mandated that farmworkers receive training in the avoidance of pesticide exposure and what to do if an exposure occurs. The WPS was a sign of progress in the area of occupational health of farmworkers, and brought farmworkers closer to receiving some of the protections provided by federal law. In 1996, JSRI published a research report which examined the history, requirements, and implementation of the WPS. That report discussed the absence of information available in Michigan about farmworker health and occupational illness. This research report updates to the earlier one, examining issues affecting the implementation and efficacy of the WPS since 1996, and examing what can be learned from recent information on the occupational health of farmworkers regarding pesticide exposures in the fields.
Ann Millard, Nelda Mier, Olga Gabriel &Soledad Flores
This pilot study examined the use of health services by families with children on CHIP and Medicaid. The project focused on how families in Mission, a small city in South Texas near the border with Mexico, used the programs. The study found increasingly efficient use of health services over time, including a statistically significant drop of nearly 80% in the use of the emergency room from the first to the second year of the study. Preventive care was used regularly by most families in the study as measured through rates of visiting the dentist and getting an eye examination; however, those rates fell immediately and drastically after the state legislature cuts in CHIP came into effect in the fall of 2003. The study presents evidence supporting the following conclusions: (1) Parents rely on CHIP and Children’s Medicaid to meet the needs of their children; (2) Parents are using CHIP and Children’s Medicaid appropriately and efficiently; (3) Use of the emergency room decreases dramatically when children have health insurance. Low-income families thus rapidly came up to speed on using health services efficiently, and they and healthcare providers demonstrated exquisite sensitivity to policy changes by responding rapidly to CHIP program cuts. The savings in emergency room services include state indigent care funds provided to the county and additional county monies.
Linda M. Hunt, Judith C.D. Longworth & Katherine B. de Voogd
The purpose of this study was to explore factors, other than patient knowledge, that might explain low use of cervical and breast cancer screening among Hispanic women. A questionnaire was used to assess knowledge of screening recommendations and self-reported adherence among 70 older Hispanic women in Texas. Most had high knowledge levels, but this did not predict adherence. Fourteen women, all with high knowledge levels, also answered a semi-structured qualitative interview. Barriers to screening discussed in qualitative interviews included transportation, time, cost, and believing screening to be unnecessary following previous negative screening, or when sexual activity is absent. Reminders and referrals from primary care providers were key to reported adherence. Establishing policies and procedures to assure consistent cancer screening reminders and referrals may improve rates of cancer screening among women similar to those in our study, especially in settings where there is little opportunity to develop long-term patient-provider relationships.
This research report focuses on discussing the post-immigration trends in the United States. The report uses data from the 1997 Current Population Survey from the Census to show immigration trends and uses data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) to examine how children of immigrants fair in the United States. The use of descriptive data, the report highlights the several characteristics of children of immigrants. The dimensions this report focuses on are: immigrant family composition, language shifts, identity and discrimination, views of the U.S., predictors of ambition and achievement and peer groups, self-esteem and pan-ethnic self-identities. The report finds that children of immigrants have different language preferences, have career and educational ambitions and developed pan-ethnic identities arising from discrimination in the United States. In short, this report displays the role assimilation plays among children of immigrants and how this impacts several of their outcomes as time passes with their residence in the U.S.
This report examines welfare reforms in five Midwest states, following the Responsibility Act of 1996. The states,Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, are selected because of their geographic proximity and because of their unique policies and programs. These programs are reviewed, compared, and assessed in this report. An important finding is the disparity between claims of success in reducing welfare dependency against the apparent persistence of poverty, hunger, and other related social problems for millions of children and working poor.
This study looks at the underutilization of hospice by elderly Mexican-American women in Lansing, Mich. The hospice literature refers to "barriers" as reasons why Mexican-Americans do not use hospice and discusses three different categories: curanderos, familismo, and fatalism. This study analyzes the claims made by the hospice literature and tests its validity by interacting and interviewing Mexican-American elderly women at Lansing's Cristo Rey Community Center. The results showed that the claims about familismo and fatalism were still important elements which affected the women's beliefs on death and dying and the use of hospice; however, there was no reported use of curanderos. It was also shown that there is not a "need" for hospice, for an informal hospice already exists. Therefore, in order for hospice to understand the underutilization of its services, it is necessary to speak to the people of minority communities. In this way, they are able to tell, in their own words (en sus propias palabras), of their need for help in dealing with death and dying.
Mexican farm workers are not limiting themselves to farm areas in the U.S. Southwest. In fact, as Gamboa (1990), Garcia (1996), and Nodin Valdes (1991) have found in their research, this has never been the case. Today, as before, Mexican laborers continue to venture into communities and work in agricultural industries found throughout the country, including the U.S. Northeast. In New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, for example, vegetable, fruit, and horticultural producers are hiring Mexican laborers in unprecedented numbers. In some of these industries, like the mushroom industry of Pennsylvania, which produces nearly half of the country’s crop, Mexicans make up the majority of the work force. The relatively new Mexican enclaves in Southern Chester County, Pennsylvania, a major mushroom region of the country, is examined in this research paper. A Mexican enclave is defined as a growing concentration of Mexican-origin residents, both foreign and U.S.-born, who reside permanently in the boroughs and townships of the region. The focus of this paper will be on two expanding enclaves, one in Kennett Square and the other in nearby Toughkenamon.
The authors examine the changes associated with the opening of IBP, a large meatpacking plant, and the arrival of Latinos in Lexington, Nebraska. The study draws on multiple sources of data, including interviews of many community stakeholders and various secondary sources. The authors found that the costs associated with the arrival of IBP in Lexington include overcrowding and increased turnover in the schools; rising crime; shortages in adequate housing; declines in community health; increased demand for healthcare and other social services; the emergence or reemergence of racism and isolated instances of discrimination, the need to expand and upgrade community infrastructure; tax abatements and holidays provided to the new employers; and negative impacts on small producers. On the positive side, they found that the arrival of these new immigrant laborers and their families, most from Mexico and Central America, made Lexington a much more diverse community than it was before IBP opened its plant. This also brought an assortment of ethnic shops and restaurants, making downtown Lexington far more lively and economically sound than it was in the late 1980’s. These new businesses expanded the tax base because of Latino newcomers. New community organizations were also founded to help families. The authors recommend to: 1) create a “positive context of reception for new immigrants; 2) create economic development beyond IBP; and 3) build for the second generation.
Data from the 1979 National Chicano Survey were analyzed using a path analysis model to examine the effects of wife's employment on the psychological well-being of Mexican-American men. Three hypotheses were examined. First, Mexican-American husbands whose wives are employed will not provide more help with household chores than their counterparts whose wives are not employed. Second, Mexican-American males who provide more help with household chores will report lower levels of marital satisfaction. Third, Mexican-American husbands whose wives are employed, who help more with household chores, and who report lower levels of marital satisfaction will experience higher levels of depression. The results show limited support for the model. While Mexican-American husbands do contribute more to household chores when their wives are employed, this participation is not significantly related to the level of marital satisfaction or the levels of depression.
This research report is based on my doctoral dissertation. I would like to acknowledge and thank my advisor, Dr. Refugio I. Rochín, for the assistance that was given me in completing the dissertation. The help I received was indispensable. I also wish to thank my committee members, Dr. Clifford Broman, Dr. Thomas Conner, and Dr. Francisco Villarruel, for their help and guidance in the process of researching and writing the dissertation. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Christopher Vanderpool for his support throughout my graduate career at Michigan State University. This report was written while I was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Julian Samora Research Institute, which funded the project.
Eunice Romero-Gwynn & Douglas Gwynn
The diet of Latinos living in the United States is influenced by the dietary traditions of individual countries, availability of native foods in U.S. food stores, new dietary practices adopted in the U.S., as well as length of residency of in the U.S. This paper describes dietary patterns and selected health conditions among people of Mexican descent in California. Sources of information include literature searches and data from a study conducted among women of Mexican descent living in five California counties. The study investigated the degree of retention and/or abandonment of traditional Mexican dietary practices and adoption of new ones in the U.S. Participants included 165 Mexican-born women who had migrated as adults to the U.S. A second group consisted of 101 first-generation Mexican-American women born and reared in the U.S. Women in this study were low-income, with an average age of 34 years, and an average education of seven years. Frequency of food consumption before and after immigration, and frequency of food consumption among Mexican-Americans were assessed. Over 160 traditional Mexican foods and foods of the “typical” U.S. diet were included in the research instrument. Prevalence of obesity and diabetes as well as participants’ awareness of preventive measures were assessed. The study identified different levels of dietary acculturation among the two groups. These reflect a decline in the consumption of traditional foods, new ways of utilizing traditional foods and, above all, the adoption of new foods. Overall, there were some healthful and some significantly less healthful dietary changes.
A racial/ethnic analysis of total adult male admissions in six Nebraska Department of Correctional Services (DCS) facilities for a 5-year period, from 1987 to 1991, shows Latino admissions almost doubling. Interestingly, the majority of Latino males sentenced to Nebraska penal facilities enter the system from Panhandle County, a sparsely populated rural agricultural county. Census data indicate that Latino prison admissions in Nebraska and, even more so, in Panhandle County are highly disproportionate to respective 1990 state and county population figures. In addition, a comparison of Latino imprisonment rates in eight counties with Latino populations of 1,000 or more shows Latinos entering the prison system at higher rates from smaller rural counties. Finally, bivariate and multivariate analyses of Panhandle County district court records point to a double standard of justice in Panhandle County favoring Anglos over Latinos and Native Americans. This publication was presented to the Graduate College faculty at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Master of Arts degree. It was prepared under the supervision of Professor Jay Corzine, 1992.
This report examines excluded minority groups that also face racism in the United States. Hall aims to move the discussion of racism towards a discussion of skin color and does this through an examination of Puerto Ricans. He examines skin color because according to him skin color is the pre-condition for racism. Through a theoretical analysis of Puerto Ricans, Hall makes the case for the importance of skin color when it comes to determining racism beyond the white-black dichotomy. For instances, Puerto Ricans are a heterogenous group that is comprised of people of various skin tones. Some of these individuals have a lighter skin tone when compared to others who have a darker skin tone. The role of Anglo-Saxon perceptions of lighter skin tones being superior impact Puerto Ricans because of Anglo colonization. Hall suggests in his research report that educating Hispanic students about skin color and racism can be a solution to combating colorism in their homes and society.
Rogelio Saenz & Cynthia Cready
Despite their concentration in the Southwest, Mexican Americans have migrated to the Midwest throughout the 20th century. This paper provides a historical overview describing the movement of Mexican Americans between the Southwest and Midwest over the 20th century. Drawing on data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples, this analysis seeks to assess the extent by which migration patterns are occurring across states. The results demonstrate a net flow of Mexican Americans in the expected direction (i.e., from the Southwest to the Midwest), with the Midwest experiencing a net gain of nearly 7,400 migrants who moved between the two regions from 1985-1990. While all states except Illinois and South Dakota experienced net gains of Mexican American migrants, Kansas, Minnesota, and Michigan were the only ones whose net gains were larger than 1,000. A variety of in-depth analyses are also reported in the paper.
This article on the migration and integration of Latinos into the community of Adrian, Michigan begins with a state-level descriptive analysis of the composition and change in the Latino population over the decade of the 1980s. The observations made are contrasted with the findings of a similar analysis of the Latino population in Adrian. The manuscript proceeds with a brief history of what first drew “Mexican” workers to the Adrian area. The manuscript also describes how they were welcomed as citizens. The historical overview is followed by a discussion on different indicators of Latino integration as reflected by recent socioeconomic conditions. After a concluding section on Latinos in Adrian, the manuscript proceeds to a discussion on the policy implications of the research findings for immigration reform, and for social policy related to the migration and integration of Latinos and other minority groups.
Lindon J. Robison & Marcelo Siles
This research report examines if changes in income inequality and changes in income are associated with social capital or the strength of relationships. The methodological approach taken by Robison and Siles is quantitative. They specifically test the relationship between social capital indicator variables and changes in the distribution of household income. For this study the authors rely on Census data from the 1980s and 1990s. The authors found that the largest increase in income inequality was among White households and the lowest increase was among Asian households. In conclusion, Robison and Siles find that changes in social capital has a significant effect on the disparity and level of household income.
This report summarizes laws and conditions of social welfare reform up to December 1996. It describes and evaluates Michigan reforms, including the termination of General Assistance Program, creation of new program to strengthen Michigan families, and creation of new rules of eligibility for the recipient of AFDC/Family Independence Program, Food Stamps, and Medicaid. It describes socioeconomic characteristics of the population in Michigan, the main features of the traditional and new social welfare system, and critically examines these reforms and their underlying assumptions. He indicates that these reforms do not address poverty and its increase in the past few decades, especially the large number of innocent children and hardworking single women who are living in poverty. Also the reforms do not mention historical processes leading to the structural determinants of poverty beyond the control of an individual. These reforms do not address the fact that an overwhelming majority of people on welfare are minority populations of blacks, Native Indians, and Hispanics, unemployed, retired, sick, disabled, and mentally retarded people. These reforms do not address the fate of children whose parents do not fulfill the requirements of social contract, job training, and responsibility.
This study examines the general conditions of colonias and Chicana/o entrepreneurs in rural California. It also attempts to ascertain how changing demographics and “structural conditions” affect entrepreneurial activity among residents, including Whites and Chicanos. Data are drawn from the U.S. Censuses of Population and Economic Businesses, covering 1970-1990. We created a special database of over 145 communities with populations of 2,000 to 20,000 in 1980, which served as the marker from which we compared business activity and socio-demographic changes over time. Census data are also supplemented by California data on factors like taxes, revenues, and school districts. Analysis of variance and multiple regression techniques give us answers to several hypotheses, based upon our review of literature and our “structuralist model” of entrepreneurship. Our results both confirm and contradict some of our hypotheses. First, we find striking differences between White and Chicano entrepreneurs, especially with regard to colonia conditions, relative employment options for residents, and levels of education. We also notice that self-employment among Chicana/os is closely correlated with structural conditions: the higher the proportion of Latina/os in a community, the more the self-employment of Chicana/os in relative terms. However, structural conditions also relate to fewer economic opportunities for residents, higher unemployment, higher concentrations of workers in agriculture, limited educational attainment among Latinos, and general economic deprivation within colonias. All combined, Chicana/o entrepreneurs are relatively more evident in colonias with high proportions of Latina/os, but their customers are generally poor.
Kevin R. Johnson
This research report focuses on the impact Proposition 187 would have on Latinos in California. Johnson examines Proposition 187 through three facets, those being: (1) racialized component of the campaign, (2) the impact it was supposed to have on immigrant communities, and (3) the legal challenges to Proposition 187. He argues that the political implications of Prop. 187 soon became ignored by political institutions and evolved into a debate of illegal immigration. Specifically, he claims that Prop. 187 became a debate about illegal immigration due to the historical past of CA with regards to illegal immigration. From his analysis he states that if Prop. 187 had been passed CA would have lost money and immigrant groups (Latinos and Asians) would have been gravely affected. Once Prop. 187 passed in CA, soon came the litigation from several organizations on the grounds of its racial undertones. Hall concludes that the campaign in support of Prop. 187 had an anti-immigration, anti-Latino and anti-Mexican message and if passed would have a negative impact on the Latino community.
Utilizing data from the 1990 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Preliminary Release File, this paper examines patterns of disability and estimates the differential costs attributed to disability status for Anglo, Black and Latino men. The analysis reveals considerable variation in the prevalence of disability. When examining prevalence across racial and ethnic groups, Puerto Rican men have the highest rates of disability, regardless of the indicator used to measure disability; Anglo men report the lowest rates. Multivariate analyses reveal that poor health and the presence of a work disability were significant predictors of the labor force participation and earnings of men. These analyses also suggest that the economic well-being of Blacks and Latinos is further constrained by the costs associated with carrying "additional minority" statuses, lending partial support to the notion of double or triple jeopardy.
Rural California is becoming increasingly Latino. At the same time, the economic well-being of California’s agricultural communities is increasingly defined by the race and ethnicity of residents. A number of studies have noted that communities with high concentrations of Latinos tend to have greater economic and social problems. This paper examines both the out-migration of non-Hispanic Whites and the in-migration of Latinos in rural California, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between ethnicity and the economic wellbeing of California’s rural communities. The first part of the paper uses a database of 126 rural California communities to compare and contrast demographic changes (during 1980-90) in Latino and non-Latino population, and examines the degree to which White out-migration and Latino in-migration correlate with community socio-economic indicators. The second part of the paper uses in-depth qualitative data to examine several communities in the San Joaquin valley.
Until very recently, little attention has been paid to the occupational safety of the huge migrant and seasonal workforce which provides our nation with fruits and vegetables. This paper describes the new Worker Protection Standards, federal regulations put into effect in 1995, which are intended to provide increased measures of safety to farmworkers against pesticide poisoning on the job. Specifically, the Worker Protection Standards mandates employers to provide pesticide safety training. This paper explores the complex issues surrounding state implementation of these federal pesticide laws, and how that interaction works in Michigan. Finally, this paper looks at what is known and what is not known about the condition of the farmworker population in Michigan while focusing on the dearth of information on the occupational injury and illness rates of farmworkers.
Using the High School and Beyond data, the author attempts to determine whether social capital explain the academic achievement of Latino students. The author assesses the importance of human, financial, and social capital in determining the academic (and life) outcomes of Latino youth. The author found that social capital is more useful than socioeconomic status in predicting educational outcomes. Whites in vocational programs have less social capital available from home than Latinos in college-bound programs. White youth in vocational programs even have slightly less social capital than Latino youth in vocational programs. These findings hold true even when social capital of school, such as the influence of teachers and guidance counselors, is accounted for in the model. The author concludes that social capital from the home and school environments are very important factors in determining educational outcomes of both White and Latino youth, net of the effect of socioeconomic status. The study suggests that home and school environments, which foster guided reading and writing activities, are more conducive to improved educational outcomes than the socioeconomic status of students. The author recommends further work to better understand social capital in the pre-labor market environments of youth.
In this study, Dr. Jackson examined the stereotypic characteristics and values, emotions, and behaviors associated with Hispanics by Anglos. Stereotypic characteristics and values indicated generally negative perceptions of Hispanics (e.g., less productive and intelligent, more physically violent), although a few positive characteristics and values (e.g., strong family values) were associated with the group. The best predictors of overall attitudes toward Hispanics were emotion and behavior, with stereotypic characteristics and values contributing little to the prediction. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to examine sources of negative perceptions of Hispanics and methods for changing such perceptions.
The amount of research examining poverty among Latinos has increased over the last decade. However, this body of literature is primarily based upon individual-level analysis, particular regions of the country, and metropolitan areas. This research examines poverty in Midwest Latino counties (defined as those containing at least 500 Latinos) in 1989 as well as changes in poverty between 1979 and 1989. The analysis is guided theoretically by an integrated model which identifies four groups of factors that are related to the percent of Latino families having incomes below the poverty level. The four groups of factors include variables reflecting the demographic structure of Latinos, Latino human capital, Latino employment conditions, and the geographic and industrial settings where Latinos reside. Data from the 1980 and 1990 Census Bureau's Summary Tape Files 3C (STF3C) are used in the analysis. Results from ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression provide support for the usefulness of the integrated model, especially in the cross-sectional analysis based on the 1990 census.