Lisa J. Gold
Nearly a decade ago, the EPA implemented comprehensive regulations intended to protect farmworkers from the harmful effects of pesticides in the workplace. These “Worker Protection Standards” mandated that farmworkers receive training in the avoidance of pesticide exposure and what to do if an exposure occurs. The WPS was a sign of progress in the area of occupational health of farmworkers, and brought farmworkers closer to receiving some of the protections provided by federal law. In 1996, JSRI published a research report which examined the history, requirements, and implementation of the WPS. That report discussed the absence of information available in Michigan about farmworker health and occupational illness. This research report updates to the earlier one, examining issues affecting the implementation and efficacy of the WPS since 1996, and examing what can be learned from recent information on the occupational health of farmworkers regarding pesticide exposures in the fields.
Ann Millard, Nelda Mier, Olga Gabriel &Soledad Flores
This pilot study examined the use of health services by families with children on CHIP and Medicaid. The project focused on how families in Mission, a small city in South Texas near the border with Mexico, used the programs. The study found increasingly efficient use of health services over time, including a statistically significant drop of nearly 80% in the use of the emergency room from the first to the second year of the study. Preventive care was used regularly by most families in the study as measured through rates of visiting the dentist and getting an eye examination; however, those rates fell immediately and drastically after the state legislature cuts in CHIP came into effect in the fall of 2003. The study presents evidence supporting the following conclusions: (1) Parents rely on CHIP and Children’s Medicaid to meet the needs of their children; (2) Parents are using CHIP and Children’s Medicaid appropriately and efficiently; (3) Use of the emergency room decreases dramatically when children have health insurance. Low-income families thus rapidly came up to speed on using health services efficiently, and they and healthcare providers demonstrated exquisite sensitivity to policy changes by responding rapidly to CHIP program cuts. The savings in emergency room services include state indigent care funds provided to the county and additional county monies.
Linda M. Hunt, Judith C.D. Longworth & Katherine B. de Voogd
The purpose of this study was to explore factors, other than patient knowledge, that might explain low use of cervical and breast cancer screening among Hispanic women. A questionnaire was used to assess knowledge of screening recommendations and self-reported adherence among 70 older Hispanic women in Texas. Most had high knowledge levels, but this did not predict adherence. Fourteen women, all with high knowledge levels, also answered a semi-structured qualitative interview. Barriers to screening discussed in qualitative interviews included transportation, time, cost, and believing screening to be unnecessary following previous negative screening, or when sexual activity is absent. Reminders and referrals from primary care providers were key to reported adherence. Establishing policies and procedures to assure consistent cancer screening reminders and referrals may improve rates of cancer screening among women similar to those in our study, especially in settings where there is little opportunity to develop long-term patient-provider relationships.
In at least one sense, the so-called "American century" is ending much as it began: the United States has become a nation of immigrants and is again being profoundly transformed. Central to that transformation are the modes of incorporation of today's immigrants - and more consequentially still, of their offspring. Immigrant children and U.S.-born children of immigrants - the fastest-growing segment of the United States' child population - accounted for 15% of all American children in 1990, including about 60% of all Hispanic children and an overwhelming 90% of all Asian-American children (Zhou, 1997); today, based on analysis of the 1997 Current Population Survey1, they number 13.7 million, or nearly 20% of all American children. The last census counted 2 million foreign-born children under 18, and another 6 million U.S.-born children under 18 living with immigrant parents (Oropesa and Landale, 1997). Between 1990 and 1997, the immigrant population increased from 20 to 27 million, with the number of their children growing commensurately. By 1997, there were 3 million foreign-born children and nearly 11 million U.S.-born children under 18 with at least one foreign-born parent.
This report examines welfare reforms in five Midwest states, following the Responsibility Act of 1996. The states,Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, are selected because of their geographic proximity and because of their unique policies and programs. These programs are reviewed, compared, and assessed in this report. An important finding is the disparity between claims of success in reducing welfare dependency against the apparent persistence of poverty, hunger, and other related social problems for millions of children and working poor.
This study looks at the underutilization of hospice by elderly Mexican-American women in Lansing, Mich. The hospice literature refers to "barriers" as reasons why Mexican-Americans do not use hospice and discusses three different categories: curanderos, familismo, and fatalism. This study analyzes the claims made by the hospice literature and tests its validity by interacting and interviewing Mexican-American elderly women at Lansing's Cristo Rey Community Center. The results showed that the claims about familismo and fatalism were still important elements which affected the women's beliefs on death and dying and the use of hospice; however, there was no reported use of curanderos. It was also shown that there is not a "need" for hospice, for an informal hospice already exists. Therefore, in order for hospice to understand the underutilization of its services, it is necessary to speak to the people of minority communities. In this way, they are able to tell, in their own words (en sus propias palabras), of their need for help in dealing with death and dying.
Mexican farm workers are not limiting themselves to farm areas in the U.S. Southwest. In fact, as Gamboa (1990), Garcia (1996), and Nodin Valdes (1991) have found in their research, this has never been the case. Today, as before, Mexican laborers continue to venture into communities and work in agricultural industries found throughout the country, including the U.S. Northeast. In New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, for example, vegetable, fruit, and horticultural producers are hiring Mexican laborers in unprecedented numbers. In some of these industries, like the mushroom industry of Pennsylvania, which produces nearly half of the country’s crop, Mexicans make up the majority of the work force. The relatively new Mexican enclaves in Southern Chester County, Pennsylvania, a major mushroom region of the country, is examined in this research paper. A Mexican enclave is defined as a growing concentration of Mexican-origin residents, both foreign and U.S.-born, who reside permanently in the boroughs and townships of the region. The focus of this paper will be on two expanding enclaves, one in Kennett Square and the other in nearby Toughkenamon.
The authors examine the changes associated with the opening of IBP, a large meatpacking plant, and the arrival of Latinos in Lexington, Nebraska. The study draws on multiple sources of data, including interviews of many community stakeholders and various secondary sources. The authors found that the costs associated with the arrival of IBP in Lexington include overcrowding and increased turnover in the schools; rising crime; shortages in adequate housing; declines in community health; increased demand for healthcare and other social services; the emergence or reemergence of racism and isolated instances of discrimination, the need to expand and upgrade community infrastructure; tax abatements and holidays provided to the new employers; and negative impacts on small producers. On the positive side, they found that the arrival of these new immigrant laborers and their families, most from Mexico and Central America, made Lexington a much more diverse community than it was before IBP opened its plant. This also brought an assortment of ethnic shops and restaurants, making downtown Lexington far more lively and economically sound than it was in the late 1980’s. These new businesses expanded the tax base because of Latino newcomers. New community organizations were also founded to help families. The authors recommend to: 1) create a “positive context of reception for new immigrants; 2) create economic development beyond IBP; and 3) build for the second generation.
Data from the 1979 National Chicano Survey were analyzed using a path analysis model to examine the effects of wife's employment on the psychological well-being of Mexican-American men. Three hypotheses were examined. First, Mexican-American husbands whose wives are employed will not provide more help with household chores than their counterparts whose wives are not employed. Second, Mexican-American males who provide more help with household chores will report lower levels of marital satisfaction. Third, Mexican-American husbands whose wives are employed, who help more with household chores, and who report lower levels of marital satisfaction will experience higher levels of depression. The results show limited support for the model. While Mexican-American husbands do contribute more to household chores when their wives are employed, this participation is not significantly related to the level of marital satisfaction or the levels of depression.
This research report is based on my doctoral dissertation. I would like to acknowledge and thank my advisor, Dr. Refugio I. Rochín, for the assistance that was given me in completing the dissertation. The help I received was indispensable. I also wish to thank my committee members, Dr. Clifford Broman, Dr. Thomas Conner, and Dr. Francisco Villarruel, for their help and guidance in the process of researching and writing the dissertation. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Christopher Vanderpool for his support throughout my graduate career at Michigan State University. This report was written while I was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Julian Samora Research Institute, which funded the project.
Eunice Romero-Gwynn & Douglas Gwynn
The diet of Latinos living in the United States is influenced by the dietary traditions of individual countries, availability of native foods in U.S. food stores, new dietary practices adopted in the U.S., as well as length of residency of in the U.S. This paper describes dietary patterns and selected health conditions among people of Mexican descent in California. Sources of information include literature searches and data from a study conducted among women of Mexican descent living in five California counties. The study investigated the degree of retention and/or abandonment of traditional Mexican dietary practices and adoption of new ones in the U.S. Participants included 165 Mexican-born women who had migrated as adults to the U.S. A second group consisted of 101 first-generation Mexican-American women born and reared in the U.S. Women in this study were low-income, with an average age of 34 years, and an average education of seven years. Frequency of food consumption before and after immigration, and frequency of food consumption among Mexican-Americans were assessed. Over 160 traditional Mexican foods and foods of the “typical” U.S. diet were included in the research instrument. Prevalence of obesity and diabetes as well as participants’ awareness of preventive measures were assessed. The study identified different levels of dietary acculturation among the two groups. These reflect a decline in the consumption of traditional foods, new ways of utilizing traditional foods and, above all, the adoption of new foods. Overall, there were some healthful and some significantly less healthful dietary changes.
A racial/ethnic analysis of total adult male admissions in six Nebraska Department of Correctional Services (DCS) facilities for a 5-year period, from 1987 to 1991, shows Latino admissions almost doubling. Interestingly, the majority of Latino males sentenced to Nebraska penal facilities enter the system from Panhandle County, a sparsely populated rural agricultural county. Census data indicate that Latino prison admissions in Nebraska and, even more so, in Panhandle County are highly disproportionate to respective 1990 state and county population figures. In addition, a comparison of Latino imprisonment rates in eight counties with Latino populations of 1,000 or more shows Latinos entering the prison system at higher rates from smaller rural counties. Finally, bivariate and multivariate analyses of Panhandle County district court records point to a double standard of justice in Panhandle County favoring Anglos over Latinos and Native Americans. This publication was presented to the Graduate College faculty at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Master of Arts degree. It was prepared under the supervision of Professor Jay Corzine, 1992.
Not only are Anglo-Americans consistently regarded as perpetrators but African-American minorities are consistently regarded as victims. In fact, "minority" is a political term that includes an ever-expanding assortment of races and ethnic groups differentiated from Anglo-Americans by skin color. This view of "minority" does not take account of the historical miscegenation among an increasingly indistinct Puerto Rican population. This paper will attempt to move the dialogue addressing racism from discussions of "race" to discussions of skin color.
Rogelio Saenz & Cynthia Cready
Despite their continued concentration in the Southwest, Mexican Americans have migrated to Midwest throughout the 20th century. This paper provides a historical overview describing the movement of Mexican Americans between the Southwest and Midwest over the century. The major focus of the analysis, however, is on the contemporary migration of Mexican Americans between these two regions. It is predicted that in light of the well-established historical migration routes between the Southwest and Midwest, the more favorable economic conditions of the Midwest in the 1980s relative to the earlier decade, and the expanding employment opportunities for Mexican Americans and other Latinos in certain industrial sectors in the Midwest, the net flow of Mexican American migrants occurred from the Southwest to the Midwest in the 1985-1990 period. The analysis seeks to assess this prediction and to determine the extent to which this pattern is observed across states in the region. Data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) are used to conduct the analysis. The results demonstrate a net flow of Mexican Americans in the expected direction (i.e., from the Southwest to the Midwest), with the Midwest experiencing a net gain of nearly 7,400 migrants who moved between the two regions in the 1985-1990 period. While all states except Illinois and South Dakota experienced net gains of Mexican American migrants, Kansas, Minnesota, and Michigan were the only ones whose net gains were larger than 1,000. A variety of other more indepth analyses are also reported in the paper.
This article on the migration and integration of Latinos into the community of Adrian, Michigan begins with a state-level descriptive analysis of the composition and change in the Latino population over the decade of the 1980's. The observations made are contrasted with the findings of a similar analysis of the Latino population in Adrian. The manuscript proceeds with a brief history of what first drew "Mexican" workers to the Adrian area and how they were welcomed as citizens. The historical overview is followed by a discussion on different indicators of Latino integration as reflected by recent socioeconomic conditions. After a concluding section on Latinos in Adrian the manuscript proceeds to a discussion on the policy implications of the research findings for immigration reform, and for social policy related to the migration and integration of Latinos and other minority groups.
Marcelo Siles & Lindon J. Robison
Lindon J. Robison and Marcelo E. Siles are, respectively, Professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Senior Research Associate at the Julian Samora Research Institute at Michigan State University. Support for this report was provided by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and the Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. The authors appreciate the valuable comments of and discussions with James Bonnen, Carl Eicher, Steve J. Gold, Julie Howard, Lester Manderscheid, Jack Meyer, Robert Myers, Refugio Roehin, Allan Schmid, and John Staatz. We are also grateful to Jeanette Barbour, Danny Layne, Linea Nichols and John Schwarz for their assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
This report summarizes laws and conditions of social welfare reform up to December 1996. It describes and evaluates Michigan reforms, including the termination of General Assistance Program, creation of new program to strengthen Michigan families, and creation of new rules of eligibility for the recipient of AFDC/Family Independence Program, Food Stamps, and Medicaid. It describes socioeconomic characteristics of the population in Michigan, the main features of the traditional and new social welfare system, and critically examines these reforms and their underlying assumptions. He indicates that these reforms do not address poverty and its increase in the past few decades, especially the large number of innocent children and hardworking single women who are living in poverty. Also the reforms do not mention historical processes leading to the structural determinants of poverty beyond the control of an individual. These reforms do not address the fact that an overwhelming majority of people on welfare are minority populations of blacks, Native Indians, and Hispanics, unemployed, retired, sick, disabled, and mentally retarded people. These reforms do not address the fate of children whose parents do not fulfill the requirements of social contract, job training, and responsibility.
This study examines the general conditions of colonias and Chicana/o entrepreneurs in rural California. It also attempts to ascertain how changing demographics and “structural conditions” affect entrepreneurial activity among residents, including Whites and Chicanos. Data are drawn from the U.S. Censuses of Population and Economic Businesses, covering 1970-1990. We created a special database of over 145 communities with populations of 2,000 to 20,000 in 1980, which served as the marker from which we compared business activity and socio-demographic changes over time. Census data are also supplemented by California data on factors like taxes, revenues, and school districts. Analysis of variance and multiple regression techniques give us answers to several hypotheses, based upon our review of literature and our “structuralist model” of entrepreneurship. Our results both confirm and contradict some of our hypotheses. First, we find striking differences between White and Chicano entrepreneurs, especially with regard to colonia conditions, relative employment options for residents, and levels of education. We also notice that self-employment among Chicana/os is closely correlated with structural conditions: the higher the proportion of Latina/os in a community, the more the self-employment of Chicana/os in relative terms. However, structural conditions also relate to fewer economic opportunities for residents, higher unemployment, higher concentrations of workers in agriculture, limited educational attainment among Latinos, and general economic deprivation within colonias. All combined, Chicana/o entrepreneurs are relatively more evident in colonias with high proportions of Latina/os, but their customers are generally poor.
The topic of my presentation certainly has been in the spotlight over the last year. California's Proposition 187 was an initiative passed by the voters by a 59-41% margin. If implemented, the initiative would bar state and local governments in California from providing non-emergency health care and social services and public education to undocumented immigrants. It would further require California law enforcement, health and social service agencies, and public school officials to report persons suspected of being undocumented to the Immigration and Naturalization Service. There was much media hoopla surrounding the Proposition 187 campaign in the fall of 1994. The initiative received national attention. The true test of this was that the New York Times ran an editorial on the subject. Even a couple of prominent national Republicans, Jack Kemp and Bill Bennett, publicly announced their opposition to the measure. This national concern was justified. Many voters in California desired to "send a message" to the federal government. There apparently was a desire to get the federal government to deal with illegal immigration. Events in Congress over the last few weeks demonstrate that this message has had an impact. I will attempt to analyze three discrete aspects of Proposition 187 in this report: (1) the racial undercurrent to the campaign; (2) the disparate impact that the measure may have on certain immigrant communities; and (3) the legal challenges to Proposition 187 that in all likelihood will ultimately be addressed by the United States Supreme Court.
Utilizing data from the 1990 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Preliminary Release File, this paper examines patterns of disability and estimates the differential costs attributed to disability status for Anglo, Black and Latino men. The analysis reveals considerable variation in the prevalence of disability. When examining prevalence across racial and ethnic groups, Puerto Rican men have the highest rates of disability, regardless of the indicator used to measure disability; Anglo men report the lowest rates. Multivariate analyses reveal that poor health and the presence of a work disability were significant predictors of the labor force participation and earnings of men. These analyses also suggest that the economic well-being of Blacks and Latinos is further constrained by the costs associated with carrying "additional minority" statuses, lending partial support to the notion of double or triple jeopardy.
Rural California is becoming increasingly Latino. At the same time, the economic well-being of California’s agricultural communities is increasingly defined by the race and ethnicity of residents. A number of studies have noted that communities with high concentrations of Latinos tend to have greater economic and social problems. This paper examines both the out-migration of non-Hispanic Whites and the in-migration of Latinos in rural California, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between ethnicity and the economic wellbeing of California’s rural communities. The first part of the paper uses a database of 126 rural California communities to compare and contrast demographic changes (during 1980-90) in Latino and non-Latino population, and examines the degree to which White out-migration and Latino in-migration correlate with community socio-economic indicators. The second part of the paper uses in-depth qualitative data to examine several communities in the San Joaquin valley.
Until very recently, little attention has been paid to the occupational safety of the huge migrant and seasonal workforce which provides our nation with fruits and vegetables. This paper describes the new Worker Protection Standards. These are federal regulations put into effect in 1995, which are intended to provide an increased measure of safety to farmworkers against pesticide poisoning on the job, by mandating employer-provided training in pesticide safety. This paper explores the complex issues surrounding state implementation of these federal pesticide laws, and how that interaction works in Michigan. Finally, this paper looks at what is known and what is not known about the condition of the farmworker population in Michigan, focusing on the dearth of information on the occupational injury and illness rates of farmworkers.
Using the High School and Beyond dataset, this report attempts to determine whether the economic concept known as "social capital" can help explain the academic achievement of Latino students. The report also relates the pre-labor market environment of youth to the basic economic theories which try to account for the status of Latinos in the labor market. Specifically, the report assesses the importance of human, financial and social capital in determining the academic (and life) outcomes of Latino youth. While the report initially posits the role of financial, human and social capital available in the three separate pre-labor market environments of the home, school and community, many of these aspects of the study eventually drop out. The concepts of financial and human capital provided by the home are replaced by the composite variable of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition, the High School and Beyond dataset does not provide sufficient information on the community to allow for measurement of any type of "capital" in that realm; nor is the human and financial capital provided by the school environment operationalized. Hence, the report is left to focus on measuring the social capital available to the student (Latino and non-Latino) at home and in the school, holding in consideration the SES and the student's own effort level (measured in hours spent on homework). Confirmatory Factor Analysis is the selected method; Latino and White students are the selected populations.
In this study, Dr. Jackson examined the stereotypic characteristics and values, emotions, and behaviors associated with Hispanics by Anglos. Stereotypic characteristics and values indicated generally negative perceptions of Hispanics (e.g., less productive and intelligent, more physically violent), although a few positive characteristics and values (e.g., strong family values) were associated with the group. The best predictors of overall attitudes toward Hispanics were emotion and behavior, with stereotypic characteristics and values contributing little to the prediction. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to examine sources of negative perceptions of Hispanics and methods for changing such perceptions.
The amount of research examining poverty among Latinos has increased over the last decade. However, this body of literature is primarily based upon individual-level analysis, particular regions of the country, and metropolitan areas. This research examines poverty in Midwest Latino counties (defined as those containing at least 500 Latinos) in 1989 as well as changes in poverty between 1979 and 1989. The analysis is guided theoretically by an integrated model which identifies four groups of factors that are related to the percent of Latino families having incomes below the poverty level. The four groups of factors include variables reflecting the demographic structure of Latinos, Latino human capital, Latino employment conditions, and the geographic and industrial settings where Latinos reside. Data from the 1980 and 1990 Census Bureau's Summary Tape Files 3C (STF3C) are used in the analysis. Results from ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression provide support for the usefulness of the integrated model, especially in the cross-sectional analysis based on the 1990 census.