Christina Jose-Kampfner &Frances Aparicio
This interdisciplinary research project, which took place in Southwest Detroit, is grounded in educational psychology, sociolinguistics, literature, and culture. Its focus is the multiple forms of violence affecting Latino/a youth and their school performance.
This paper examines alternative interpretations of agricultural law that encompasses the realm of Lat-Crit and Critical Race Theory scholarship and its application to workers within the agricultural hierarchy. Representing new forms of legal jurisprudence allows examining legislation written primarily by the dominant population that continues to exclude the agricultural worker. In facilitating food production in the United States, federal legislation and policy have extended a wide array of benefits to the agricultural sector that has long promoted the sector’s wealth. Despite broad public support, workers, a key input critical to the production of food, remains excluded from economically driven legislation. Benefitting the sector through seasonal and migrant labor that plants, cultivates, and harvests fruit, nuts, and trees, federal legislation is perpetuating the longstanding poverty status of workers, comprised largely of persons of Mexican descent. This federal posture promotes erratic terms and deplorable conditions of employment for workers under federal law, and thus racializes the treatment of workers with a Mexican background. Largely excluded from beneficial federal legislation, agricultural workers consequently remain marginalized within the framework of agricultural law. In the enactment of agricultural legislation, the drafters and promoters of agricultural legislation fail to access alternative interpretations of the law. This failure disallows choices representative of a democratic ideal and promotes the omission of agricultural laborers from economically driven measures. As an alternative, this essay seeks inclusion of agricultural laborers within the culture of agricultural legislation benefitting the economic standing of the sector.
According to the 1996 CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, the Centers for Disease Control reported 501,310 cases of AIDS in the United States as of October 1995. This number grew to 525,050 by December 1995. Fifty-one percent of the reported AIDS cases were among African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos. These figures become more significant when compared to the national population breakdown. African-Americans represent 12.1% of the population while Hispanics/Latinos represent 9% of the population. From this growing group of victims, African-American and Hispanic/Latino women are disproportionately represented, and the disease is expected to spread at much higher rates among these groups. The best know prevention against AIDS at present is education. Therefore, this paper argues that men and women should be educated about how to protect themselves. Specifically, the primary routes of transmission of HIV infection in the United States are culturally structured social behaviors, particularly the sharing of intravenous drug injection equipment and sexual acts involving the exchange of body fluids. AIDS preventive education must include education about drug use as well, including the provision of clean needles or a means of cleaning them. Moreover, the government, at all levels, must also be held accountable for acceptable levels of commitment to and intervention in minority communities.
Despite the recent proliferation of research on homicide, scholars have neglected to examine killings among the Latino population (Martinez 1996). While the "long history and large numbers of Latinos in the United States" are well recognized within the social science literature (Moore and Pinderhughes 1993:xix), researchers have shown little concern about the extent and seriousness of the Latino homicide problem. Although prominent public health agencies identify homicide as a major contributor to death among Latinos (Baker 1996; Mercy 1987), few criminological studies are focused on murder among Latinos (Zahn 1987). The result is an incomplete understanding of Latino homicides (Martinez 1996). Not only is the extent of Latino homicide unknown, the determinants of Latino homicide are also unknown. The purpose of this paper is to enhance our knowledge on the killings of Latinos in the United States. I propose that the impact of immigration and economic deprivation on Latino communities creates a social milieu that varies substantially from the experiences of most other ethnic groups (e.g., Anglo and Black) and that, in turn, influences violence. Also, I compare and contrast the small number of Latino homicide studies, paying special attention to the context within which Latino homicides occur. Finally, I propose future directions in research on Latino-specific links to homicide.
Carol Fimmen, Burton O. Witthuhn, Debi L. Riggins & Jamie Carson
This working paper examines the various factors impacting the timely completion of college degrees among Hispanics. The authors use various data sources to examine factors affecting timely degree completion among Hispanics, including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Current Population Reports, The National Center for Educational Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, American Council of Education, and the several colleges Hispanic enrollment rates. The study shows that only a small percentage of Hispanics are completing college in four years, with most students still enrolled in year 5. Further, Hispanic students leave college at higher rates than other students without earning degrees. Some barriers faced by Hispanic students with regard to degree completion include high costs of tuition and non-traditional pathways to college. Needed are more college-going support during formative years (K-12), providing more resources to students while in college, remaking the curriculum to fit the needs of Hispanics in order to promote college completion, and providing broad community and college partnerships that facilitate college completion. The authors suggest the implementation of the following specific steps to increase college completion rates of Hispanics: multicultural training for all recruitment, admissions, and academic support personnel and the use of non-traditional recruitment methods appropriate to the needs of selected Hispanic audiences.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the main causes for income differentials (Gini coefficient) between Hispanics and other ethnic groups. Using mainly the U.S. Census Bureau data, the author found that income differentials have been increasing in the United States since the mid-1960’s up to the early 1990’s. Income differentials were observed for the entire U.S. population and for each of the racial groups. Blacks showed the largest gaps in household incomes, but the existing gap with Hispanics and Whites has been decreasing in the last few years. Educational attainment had the strongest effect on income differentials and mean household income. The educational attainment of Hispanics is the lowest among all the racial groups, and Hispanics’ expected earnings are very low. Mean earnings for Hispanics declined in constant dollars between 1980 and 1990. The most serious problem for Hispanics is the high level of dropout rates from the school systems. Hispanics have the highest labor force participation rates among all racial groups, but their low levels of educational attainment prevent them from obtaining good paying jobs. Most Hispanics are in low-paying occupations such as operators, fabricators, laborers, and in the service industry, which increases their likelihood of being poor. The author also found that income differentials have a direct impact on family cohesiveness and community well-being. Income differentials are positively related to both divorce and child poverty rates.
The purpose of this study was to identify the major influences of poverty or financial well-being among Puerto Ricans in the United States. Selected variables that measure personal/ psychological influences, family influences, and socioeconomic influences were included in a multivariate analysis. The dependent variable was a computed poverty index to measure economic well-being. The data for this study come from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84 (HHANES). The Puerto Rican sample used for the analyses consists of 1,684 observations from the New York City area, including parts of New Jersey and Connecticut. The variables that had the strongest impact on the poverty index were: health, locus of control, acculturation, family structure, public assistance, employment status, and type of worker. Through multiple regression analyses, some determinants of Puerto Rican poverty were identified. The findings of this and previous quantitative and qualitative studies provide empirical evidence for public policy recommendations.
Pamela A. Quiroz
Educational researchers have become increasingly interested in what is commonly referred to as the “school-to-work” transition. Most often, it is the high school which presents the focus for study of this transition. Nevertheless, it is appropriate to assume that the links between future career aspirations and establishing an educational pathway for attaining those goals begins at a much earlier stage. Social scientists who study identity suggest that one’s identity consists of the presentation of several different selves (e.g., Goffman, 1959). Moreover, it is during adolescence when persons attempt to integrate various selves into a single identity (Erickson, 1963). This process of “self” selection and integration is social as well as internal, with validation of these selves by significant others a salient experience in the development of identity.
This working paper is an annotated bibliography of published works on Puerto Ricans. The author uses a literature search to create this annotated bibliography. There are several areas that she chose to cover in her annotated bibliography, such as: historical, present day, migration patterns and population, poverty, social class, and social change, education, segregation, women, children, and families, mental health, assessment and the Puerto Rican child. These areas are covered comprehensively in her annotated bibliography and create a create starting point for any scholar focusing on the Puerto Rican experience.
This annotated bibliography is based on my doctoral dissertation entitled "Low Birthweight, Infant Mortality, Acculturation, and Nutrition: A Explanation of Between Group Differences Among Latinos." In reviewing the literature, it became clear to me that the subject was "distended. Sources ranged from the fields of medicine, sociology, psychology, anthropology, health, and nutrition. There was no comprehensive article that addressed low birthweight in the context of Latinos. This work seeks to provide that source.
It is frustrating for me to write about this topic because it is emotionally charged. As a state consultant, I have had to travel around the state school systems to monitor and provide technical assistance to the 55 plus migrant education programs. During all these years I have observed the classrooms, talked to teachers, administrators, parents, farmworkers, health and social service providers. This experience has provided me with certain data that is of great importance. I can only speak as a member of a Hispanic group and from this perspective I may sound hurt and offended by the expressions I use to report what I have seen. While some may hold my credentials questionable, I can only affirm that they should try going to another country and work on a Ph.D. in another language that is not their native tongue. I guess I have been one of the lucky ones that got out of the barrio and made it regardless of the gangs, drugs, violence, and limited economic family conditions. As a consultant, I have made an effort to continue reading and educating myself. Unless an education consultant reads the latest research, teaches at a school, and works on problem solving in the area of expertise, write research papers, and actively participate as an advocate for the migrant children, he or she are prone to vegetate in this field. Sorry to be insulting to some who fit the description but this is a plain and simple fact. Just by looking at the students fail in the classroom, walking the school hallways, talking with frustrated teachers, parents and administrators, and having lunch and dinner with politicians does not qualify any person for recommending any significant changes in curriculum or educational approaches?. Just because a person is of Hispanic heritage, looks Hispanic or speaks Spanish doesn't mean that he or she has a license to say what is right or wrong for all Hispanic children in their school district or state?. I personally would not even attempt to recommend anything unless I study each situation thoroughly. I do not use my ethnicity as a flag or diploma to make me capable of providing expert advise. It takes more than being Hispanic or having a Spanish surname. It takes hard work and constant learning to effectively do such activities. Enough of setting the record straight. The purpose of this paper is to point to challenges and solutions for educating migrant students for the next five(5) years.
International migration to the United States experienced a dramatice change over the last two decades. The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act that abolished the national origins quota system established in 1924, gave rise to a more diversified pool of legal immigrants. Unlike past immigration coming from Europe, most immigrants now come from developing countries mainly from Asia and Latin America. For example, between 1971 and 1990, while legal immigration from Europe decreased five percent, immigration increased rapidly from Central America (248 percent), Mexico (159 percent) and Asia (72 percent) (INS, 1992). Due to the operation of social networks it is likely that undocumented migration followed a similiar pattern. In this context, some contend that the arrival of new immigrants is accelerating the conentration of poverty in certain regions in the United States.
Bert Mason, Andrew Alvarado, & Robert Palacio
This working paper focuses on the impact of migration from outside countries into rural communities in California, such as Fresno. This study uses a multi-methodological approach. Specifically, secondary data are used to examine the social and economic changes that have occurred in Fresno in the past two decades. To supplement the secondary data, the authors conduct field research over several years to examine the patterns of assimilation and acculturation of recent Mexican immigrants in Fresno. From the field research the authors conclude that the development of Mexican enclaves in rural areas, such as Fresno, slows down the process of assimilation among Mexican immigrants and makes the transition to urban areas and non-agricultural jobs unlikely for immigrants and for their children. In sum, the authors find assimilation into American society from Mexican immigrants is less likely, but that the children of Mexican immigrants are more likely to assimilate into American society and improve their social standing.
Among the key selling points of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the notion that the economic benefits of treaty's passage would slow Mexico-US migration. Whatever the ultimate extent of NAFTA's economic consequences, it is argued here that the treaty's implementation will stimulate more migration than it will stem. This is because neither the quality nor the quantity of the NAFTA-induced jobs on the Mexican side, the key ingredient in the migration-supression hypothesis, will be sufficient to deter many northern bound labor migrants. In addition, the economic integration process itself will entail job-losses in Mexico that will stimulate increased migration. On balance, therefore, outmigration will increase, rather than decrease. Despite this prediction, it is also argued here that Michigan, while sure to remain among the states most actively involved in financial dealings with Mexico, is not likely to be among the major receivers of the enhanced migration streams. Michigan will host little increased migration because most such migrants are likely to enter via existing trajectories which currently funnel large numbers of migrants. The best data available suggest that very little direct immigration from Mexico is currently steered toward Michigan. For example, the Mexican-origin population in the state grew at a very low rate during the 1980s, a decade of record Mexican immigration, and only a portion of this growth could have been due to migration. Indeed, in absolute terms, the state's Mexican-origin population grew faster in the 1970s than the 1980s, and it is likely that the portion of the growth due to migration came largely from other parts of the US, rather than from Mexico.
Between 1900 and 1930, slightly more than one million Mexicans, repsrestning about ten percent of Mexico's population, moved north into the lands the United States had wrested from Mexico during the nineteenth century. any went beyond the southwest into the Mid-West and other regions of the country. The immigrants were drawn north primarily by the lure of securing well-paying jobs in America's burgeoning industries and developing agribusiness empires. The immigrants left for other reasons as well; most notably, as a means to cope with the political instability and economic dislocations unleashed by the Mexican Revolution (roughly 1910-1917) and with the civil unrest and economic hardships that followed in the 1920s.
This article is based on a study of the work experience of production workers at MaikroTek's (a pseudonym) computer manufacturing division in California's Silicon Valley. The majority of the labor force was composed of men and women of color and white women, groups that presently are the fastest growing (Johnston and Packer 1987) populations in the workforce. At the time of this study, participatory management policies were being implemented in major corporations throughout the country; MaikroTek was at the forefront of companies with such policies. This study will show that men and women of color and white men and women hold different places in the firm's internal labor market, and that participatory management policies pose new problems for these workers. On the surface, such policies appear to provide more participation for all employees. However, this study reveals a differential effect on workers depending on structural and socio-demographic factors. Second, different groups of women workers responded differently to participatory management policies and to management's actions during the economy-wide recession of 1982-1983. Third, the present study confirms that working conditions in the primary sector of the industry are much better than secondary sector jobs. At MaikroTek workers have stable employment, relatively high wages, and fringe benefits on the job. At MaikroTek however, the heterogeneity within and among women and workers of color is such that workers' responses to management policies vary.
This paper describes the work and interaction that the author had over a six-year period with a Latino community in a Mid-Michigan. Through this interaction, she could observe the unique characteristics of the Latino elderly and learned about how they perceive their lives, families, and community. The paper also prompts questions regarding the nature and development of their support systems and describes the emotional impact of a changing social climate to this segment of the population that is continually growing. It also provides awareness of what is effective in a community and a possible foundation on which to start developing programs and policies. Dramatic changes in demographics also reflect major changes in the composition of the U.S. population. Indications are that the Latino elderly is one of the fastest growing segments of the elderly population. This rapid growth has tremendous implications for their families and the society in general. The medical, social, and economic problems of the Latino elderly will require serious attention. There are prevalent signs of the struggle of this segment of the population with issues such as changing family patterns, affordable child and elder care, and with growing shortages in quality nursing and home care services. An important issue that the paper examines is the effectiveness of the support system the Latino family provides. Latinos are family-oriented with strong kin networks and consider family members as primary sources of support.
Marcelo Siles & Juan Marinez
The Julian Samora Research Institute (JSRI) in conjunction with Michigan State University (MSU) Cooperative Extension conducted a survey of Hispanic Community Based Organizations (CBOs) during the summer of 1994. The survey had several goals: 1) to identify and compile a list of community organizations offering services of interest to the Hispanic community of Michigan; 2) to assess the focus, scope, attributes, contributions and common concerns of these organizations; and 3) to collect information concerning current operating budgets and sources of funds.
Marcelo Siles, Monica Elicerio, & Manuel Gonzales
The Governor’s Interagency Migrant Services Committee holds an annual conference focused on different migrant and seasonal farmworker problems and issues. The 1994 Annual Conference "Building Partnerships: Growers, Farmworkers and Agencies United" was organized to cultivate partnerships among growers, farmworkers, and agencies that deal with farm labor sector concerns. Previous to this conference the Committee agreed to undertake a survey which would gather information from four different perspectives: growers, grower associations, resident seasonal farmworkers, and migratory farmworkers. The survey was designed and developed by the Committee and administered by its respective members. The purpose of this report is to present an analysis of the survey results and the comments made by the participants at the conference. The survey covered 51 growers and grower associations, 35 seasonal farmworkers, and 74 migrant farmworkers. The survey reported herein and the commentary of many respondents constitute a first step towards the incorporation of two traditional, often opposing, points of view on the issues and concerns of utmost importance and value to both. In addition, the conference proceedings, appended in this report, also support the findings of the survey.
The phenomenon of Chicanos/Latinos settling out of the migrant stream in Minnesota is not a new one. St. Paul's West Side and Minneapolis' North Side were built by Chicanos/Mexicanos who settled out during the off-season or came to find jobs in the rail or meatpacking industries. Although the process is not new, the places migrants now settle are. The fastest growing Chicano/ Latino population in Minnesota is no longer in the Twin Cities metropolitan area; it is in rural Minnesota. Willmar Minnesota is now the home to the third largest Chicano/Latino community in Minnesota. The Chicano/Latino population has grown 750% over the past 10 years. The vast majority of these new residents are migrants who have put down roots in Willmar and in the larger community of Kandiyohi County, located in West Central Minnesota. Ninety percent of Willmar's Chicano/Latino population consists of Tejanos, or of people who migrated directly from Texas. The majority of residents came from the Rio Grand Valley. Green conducts a case study on Willmar, Wisconsin, in order to better understand the settlement patterns of Chicano/Latino migrants. The author discusses major economic and social conditions that encouraged this settlement. Also addressed are changes that this settlement necessitated as well as the issues it raised and continues to raise.
This paper describes the ongoing strategies to educate migrant farmworkers about the risks of HIV infection and techniques of prevention. The paper also describes the many difficulties inherent in reaching these laborers, most of whom understand little English. Many of the techniques currently implemented are innovative and require careful evaluation for effectiveness. It is highly recommended that evaluations be conducted via ethnographic techniques, as such a strategy allows for implementation and evaluation to occur concurrently and for more rapid assessments of, and modifications to, shortcomings in the ongoing HIV-education strategies.
Barbara A. Driscoll
This working paper examines the development of border studies as a field of study. Her methodological approach is qualitative, as her analysis is based on interviews with the three pioneers of border studies: Dr. Charles Loomis, Dr. Julian Samora and Dr. Gilberto Cardenas. Driscoll traces the beginning of border studies to Michigan State University and to Dr. Loomis, whom she says is the founder of the discipline. She continues by discussing the inclusion of Dr. Julian Samora as part of the creation of border studies because, as a Mexican American, he brought an important perspective that is needed in the academic setting. Throughout this entire piece, Driscoll outlines several facets of the development of border studies. Readers will be able to see the various struggles and processes that took place to develop border studies.
Karen Lambourne & Maxine Baca Zinn
In the 1990s, the United States experienced a demographic transition from an Anglo-White society to a diverse society characterized by three large racial ethnic minorities. The majority of students of the 21st century are going to be of non-European origin and the majority of them will be poor. To meet their challenges, the authors argue that we need to reconstruct the ways in which we think, work, and teach. Jobs of the future will require higher levels of literacy than in the past. Minority youth will be more likely to be at risk for educational failure, which will impact their economic security and well-being. Better understanding of the inter-institutional linkage is vital, especially for students from different class and racial ethnic backgrounds. This bibliography focuses on the inter-institutional linkage that shapes the education experiences of racial ethnic students in the United States. Though the authors are especially concerned with presenting the citations on Latinos as the highest at-risk population, the bibliography nevertheless contains material on how varied race and class connections between families and schools produce different educational experiences, and unequal outcomes for minorities. The bibliography is organized into five sections: 1) General work on racial inequality in higher education; 2) Cultural approaches and their critiques; 3) Structural approaches and social connections; 4) The interlocking of families and schools; and 5) Programs and policies for bridging families and schools.
In the wake of worldwide economic and political restructuring, migrations have both accelerated and have a growing presence in national labor markets. To a large extent, the role this labor takes within different economies reflects state policies toward achieving competitiveness. As illustration, this paper pursues two questions: what meaning can be attributed to the economic purpose of immigrant labor in diverse socio-economic systems; and accordingly, what implications can be drawn about the fluidity of borders as a result. Distinctions are made among liberal, corportist, and authoritarian governments using examples from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Kuwait. The conclusion is made that the redefinition of borders, and hence national sovereignty, is inextricably tied to the demarcation of internal and external labor markets, and to the leverage the state maintains in reconciling the two.
This report considers the relationship between ethnicity and poverty through case studies of inner city men. In particular, the spatial mismatch hypothesis and the “dual” or “segmented” labor market theory are put to the test of accounting for empirical findings on the employment dynamics among a sample of inner-city men representing four distinct ethnic/racial groups. Data are drawn from a major survey conducted in Chicago by the Urban Poverty and Family Structure (UPFS) project. The UPFS survey began in 1986 and was completed in 1987. It consisted of a stratified, probability sample of persons between the ages of 18 and 44 years, mostly parents, within the city's official poverty areas as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. The sample was stratified by four major social categories, persons of black or white heritage, and Mexican and Puerto Rican origin Hispanics. An additional component of this project, an employer survey, also provides findings with relevance to the work here and is subsequently cited. Though each of these perspectives appears to derive at least some support from the findings, neither can fully account for the patterns of the data. The results of this work ultimately raise as many questions as they answer; a number of important shortcomings of the contemporary perspectives on poverty are suggested as well as a number of clear directions for further research.