This research report is based on my doctoral dissertation. I would like to acknowledge and thank my advisor, Dr. Refugio I. Rochín, for the assistance that was given me in completing the dissertation. The help I received was indispensable. I also wish to thank my committee members, Dr. Clifford Broman, Dr. Thomas Conner, and Dr. Francisco Villarruel, for their help and guidance in the process of researching and writing the dissertation. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Christopher Vanderpool for his support throughout my graduate career at Michigan State University. This report was written while I was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Julian Samora Research Institute, which funded the project.